Glossary of web development subjects


.NET is a framework which operates in a software environment and provides guidelines for the development of many applications. Whether building a web, mobile or Windows based application, the .NET framework can pair with several languages, including, C#, C++, VB.NET, and F#.


Alexa Voice Service (AVS) provides developers with a way to voice-enable connected products with a microphone and speaker. The AVS interfaces correspond to client functionality which includes audio playback, speech recognition and volume control.


Android is the world’s most popular operating system. It was developed by Google as a mobile OS and designed primarily for touch screen devices such as smart phones and tablets.


Angular is a JavaScript-based, front-end framework used primarily for constructing client applications in HTML and TypeScript. Angluar provides core and optional functionalities in a set of libraries that can be imported directly into your apps.


An Application Program Interface (API) is a set of tools, routines and protocols that assist in building software applications and specifies how those software components should interact. APIs can also be used for programming Graphical User Interface (GUI) components.


Arduino is great for anyone making interactive projects as its open-source platform is based on easy-to-use hardware and software. Arduino boards are designed to read inputs and turn them to outputs (ex. A finger on a button, activating an LED).


This open-source, server-side web application framework was developed by Microsoft to provide programmers a way to build dynamic websites, applications and web services. Being built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR) allows programmers to write ASP.NET code in any .NET language.

Augmented Reality

Augmented Reality (AR) is all about blurring the physical/digital boundary by augmenting digital assets with your non-digital reality. AR is a great way to optimize user experience on both mobile and desktop. AR is a great way for digital marketers to allow their users interact, engage and experience their products or services before purchase.


Aurelia is a JavaScript based framework that leverages web standards. Aurelia can help create a UI that is maintainable, testable and extensible through the use of clean, modular JavaScript code.

Auth0 & OAuth

Auth0 provides developers with the foundations they need to create secure authentication and authorization services. OAuth is used to allow an end users information to be shared with third-party services without exposing the user’s password.


Amazon Web Services (AWS) is a cloud computing platform provided by Amazon. AWS provides a mix of IaaS, PaaS and SaaS offerings. An AWS customer can use virtual machines and replicate data to achieve a reliable infastructure that is resistant to failures of either individual servers or even an entire data center.


Azure is Microsoft’s public cloud computing platform. Azure provides many cloud services for computation, analytics, networking and storage. These services allow users to develop and scale new applications or run existing ones in the public cloud.


BackboneJS is a lightweight JavaScript library. It is primarily designed for developing single-page web applications and keeping many parts (server and multiple clients) of that application synchronized.


Bootstrap is an open-source framework created for developers to design responsive and mobile-first front-end web pages. Bootstrap contains CSS and optional JavaScript design templates for typography, buttons and navigation, among other interface components.


C is a highly-efficient, general-purpose programming language that can be used for many applications, including Windows, iOS and other software. Standard C programs are portable, meaning the source code written in one system will work in another without any change.


C# is Microsoft’s most popular programming language. It can be used for many things, such as game development, mobile applications, and enterprise software.


C++ is a general-purpose programming language. Its object-oriented and generic programming features make it a high performing, efficient and flexible language.


This mobile application development framework allows software programmers to create mobile device applications using CSS, HTML and JavaScript without the need to rely on specific APIs found in Android, iOS or Windows.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language that describes how HTML should be displayed on screen. CSS allows the developer to change the font styling, layout, color, etc.

Developer Tools

Developer Tools are different sets of technologies used to make building websites and writing programs easier. This broad category includes code editors, IDEs (Integrated Development Environments) and browsers that make writing and debugging code easier.


Django is an open-source web framework, based on Python. Django was designed to simplify the creation process of complex, database-driven websites.


Developed for usability and performance, Elm is a domain specific programming language for creating web browser-based graphical user interfaces.


EmberJS is an open-source JavaScript web framework which allows developers to build single page web applications and scale them by incorporating common idioms and best practices. Mobile and desktop applications can also be built in Ember.


Express is a web application framework that was created to build web applications and APIs. Express is the standard server framework for NodeJS and is the backend component of the “MEAN” stack.


Fiddler is an HTTP debugging proxy server application. It allows delevopers to debug traffic from almost any application, as well as devices such as Windows Phone, iPod/iPad and others.


GitHub is a repository hosting service where developers can share their software programs and get ideas from others in the community. It is often used for version control, or the management of changes in software documents.


Go is an open-source programming language created by Google and designed for building simple, fast and reliable software. Go is also great for creating scalable web applications.

Google Cloud

The Google Cloud Platform is a suite of cloud computing services which allow you to build, deploy and scale websites, applications and services on the same infastructure as google.

Google Kubernetes

Kubernetes is an open-source container-orchestration system designed by Google to allow the automation of application deployment, scaling and operations.


Grails is a Groovy (programming language)-based web application framework. Grails uses the “coding by convention” paradigm to be a high-productivity framework and provides a stand-alone development environment.


hapi is a framework for building applications and services which allows the developer to focus on writing application logic to be reused, rather than building an infrastructure.


Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the most common markup language for documents to be displayed on a browser. HTML is the structure of most web pages.


HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. It is an application-layer protocol used for transmitting documents such as HTML, and facilitates communication between browsers and servers, among other uses.


HTTPS (HyperText Transfer Protocol Secure) is an extension of HTTP. It is the current standard safety protocol used by most website URLs, and is encrypted using Transport Layer Security to provide secure communication over a network.

Internet of Things

The Internet of Things is a broad term to describe the physical devices and everyday objects that are connected to the internet.


Ionic is an open-source SDK (Software Development Kit) for cross-platform mobile app development. It was built based on Angular and Cordova, and can be used for web and desktop apps as well.


iOS is Apple’s operating system for its mobile devices. It is currently used in many of Apple’s popular devices such as the iPhone, iPad, and iPod Touch.


Java is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language with a wide variety of uses. It can be used to build applications to run on a single computer or on a network of servers and clients. The language for Android development is also based on Java.


JavaScript is the front-end programming language for most modern webpages. It typically works in combination with HTML and CSS to make webpages interactive, and has a wide variety of other uses.


Jest (JavaScript Testing Framework) is used for testing JavaScript libraries, and is particularly useful for React and React Native.


jQuery is a JavaScript library used to simplify DOM (Document Object Model) manipulation, event handling, and CSS animation. jQuery makes it easier to make websites interactive through JavaScript.


JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) is a file format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects defined by attribute-value pairs and array data types. It is used to exchange data between a browser and a server.


Laravel is a free, open-source PHP framework. It is used to build web applications based on the MVC (Model-View-Controller) framework.


Linux is a family of operating systems based on the Linux kernel. Its operating systems run desktop computers, servers, and embedded systems.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning is the study of how computer systems use algorithms and other data to learn to perform tasks with little or no human intervention. It is regarded as a subset of AI (Artificial Intelligence).


MeteorJS is a free, open-source JavaScript framework used to build web and mobile apps in JavaScript.


Microsoft Corporation is a major U.S. tech company that develops, manufactures, licenses, supports and sells many types of tech-related products, including software and personal computers.

Mobile App Development

Mobile App Development is the creation of applications for mobile devices, most commonly cell phones and personal assistants. iOS and Android are currently the two predominant mobile app development platforms.


MongoDB is a NoSQL document database program. It stores data in JSON-style documents and makes it easy for an application’s code to work with data.


MongooseJS is an Object Data Modeling (ODM) library for MongoDB and NodeJS which manages data and translates between objects in code and their representation in the database.


Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a way of designing user interfaces by dividing an application into three parts. The Model is the shape of the data and business logic; the View is the way data is displayed to and can be modified by the user; and the Controller handles the user request.


MySQL is an Oracle-backed, open-source relational database management system. It is based on SQL (Structured Query Language) and can be used on Linux and Windows, along with many other platforms.


NativeScript is an open-source framework that uses JavaScript to build apps for both iOS and Android.


NPM is a JavaScript package manager. Many developers use it to share and borrow packages, and many organizations use it to manage private development.


NodeJS is an open-source, cross-platform runtime environment developed by JavaScript. NodeJS executes outside the browser and allows developers to use JavaScript on the backend.


Objective-C is a general-purpose, object-oriented programming language that adds messaging to the C Language. It is the main language used by Apple for many of its operating systems.


PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose programming language commonly used for server-side scripting. It is often used in HTML web pages and apps to send and receive data to and from databases built with SQL and other technologies.


Phoenix is a simple, fast web framework used to build APIs and HTML5 apps, among other related applications.


PolymerJS is an open-source, efficient, expressive, extensible HTML templating library by JavaScript. It is used to build web applications with Web Components.


Python is a high-level, general-purpose programming language with a wide variety of uses. It can be used for server-side web development, building apps, parsing data, and mathematics, to name a few of its broad usage categories.

Raspberry Pi

Raspberry Pi is a small, cheap computer with input/output pins that allows a user to write programs for IoT (Internet of Things) devices.


React is a JavaScript library used to create UIs (User Interfaces). React makes it easy to build simple views for each state in an application, and works for both web and mobile apps.


Redux is an open-source JavaScript library used to create applications that run in different environments and are easy to test. It is often used in combination with the React and Angular libraries.

Responsive Design

Responsive Design is the ability to make a web page or app look good and work well on various types of devices and screen sizes. Styling languages like CSS and related frameworks are the backbone of Responsive Design.


Ruby is an open-source programming language that can be used for various types of applications. It can do procedural, object-oriented, and functional programming.

Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails is a server-side MVC (Model-View-Controller) framework written in Ruby. Rails helps developers build websites and applications by simplifying repetitive tasks.


Sails is an MVC (Model-View-Controller) web app framework for NodeJS designed to build custom, enterprise-grade apps.


Sass (Syntactically Awesome Style Sheets) is a CSS extension language to improve web design. Sass features several mechanisms more common to traditional, object-oriented programming languages that are not available in CSS.


SEO (Search Engine Optimization) is the term used for efforts to increase website traffic by making the site more visible on web search engines. Developers with good SEO tactics can increase the chances that automated web crawlers will rank a site higher on a search engine’s rankings.


SharePoint is a web-based platform designed by Microsoft to collaborate with Microsoft Office. Organizations often use SharePoint to create websites.


SQL (Structured Query Language) is a language designed to communicate with databases, and can be used to store, manipulate, and retrieve data from relational databases. It is used on the backend of many websites and apps, often in combination with PHP.


The Spring framework is an open-source application framework for building Java apps. Spring’s main feature is its inversion of control (IoC) container, which makes it easy to configure and manage Java apps.


Swift is a compiled programming language by Apple used for building apps for macOS, iOS, and several other types of Apple devices.


TypeScript is an open-source, object-oriented development language by Microsoft. TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript designed to improve JavaScript’s limitations as a server-side technology.


Unity is a cross-platform, real-time game development platform used to build 3D, 2D, VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality) experiences.

User Experience

User Experience (UX) deals with the user’s feelings and behavior when using a website or app. A user-friendly site or app increases the chances a user will use it, and return in the future.

User Interface

User Interface (UI) is the interaction between humans and machines. For web developers, UI is how website and app users interact with their devices when accessing the websites and apps.

Virtual Reality

Virtual Reality (VR) is a life-like experience simulated by the use of technology. VR systems are often gaming consoles or headsets which give the user an often 3-dimensional simulation of a real-world experience.


VueJS is an open-source JavaScript framework used for single-page applications and user interfaces.

Web App Development

Web applications (as opposed to mobile applications) are available to users via an internet URL (as opposed to an app store). Modern web apps can be developed using a variety of programming and markup languages.

Web Design

Web design is the process of building a website and making it aesthetically pleasing. Web designers need a basic knowledge of HTML and CSS at minimum to be able to create attractive, user-friendly websites.


Windows is a group of operating system families developed by Microsoft. Windows became a dominant force in the PC operating system market several decades ago, and remains the most popular operating system for PCs around the world.


WordPress is a CMS (Content Management System) used to create free websites and blogs. It offers dozens of customizable mobile-friendly themes for websites.


XCode is an IDE (Integrated Development Environment) developed by Apple for macOS. Developers can use it to build apps for many different types of Apple devices.


XML (eXtensible Markup Language is a markup language designed for encoding documents in a way that is both human- and machine-readable. XML makes it easier for web agents and robots to gather, transmit, and store data.

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